The
Four
Freedoms

An Exploration into America’s Evolving Concept of Basic Human Rights

The Norman Rockwell Museum in conjunction with Newman Publishing presents an online exhibition examining Norman Rockwell’s depictions of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms & what those freedoms mean today.

Norman
Rockwell’s
Freedoms

What Are the Freedoms?

The Four Freedoms is a series of four 1943 oil paintings by the American artist Norman Rockwell. The paintings — Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear — were originally commissioned for The Saturday Evening Post and published alongside essays by prominent thinkers of the day. They are now housed in the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

The four freedoms refer to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's January 1941 State of the Union address in which he identified essential human rights that should be universally protected. The theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter, and became part of the charter of the United Nations.

Rockwell, who painted over 300 original works for The Saturday Evening Post during his four decade career, was famous for his nostalgic and idealic depictions of Americana long before The Four Freedoms series ran. He was one of the most widely known and popular commercial artist of the mid-20th century, second only to Walt Disney. The Four Freedoms are his best-known works, and to many represent the pinicle of American Idealism. At one time they were commonly displayed in post offices, schools, clubs, railroad stations, and a variety of public and semi-public buildings.

Norman Rockwell's Freedom of Speech

Freedom of Speech

— Norman Rockwell, 1943, oil on canvas

Freedom of Speech was published in the February 20, 1943 Issue of The Saturday Evening Post with a matching essay by Booth Tarkington as part of the Four Freedoms series. Rockwell felt that this and Freedom to Worship were the most successful of the set. Since Rockwell liked to depict life as he experienced it or envisioned it, it is not surprising that this image depicts an actual occurrence.

Freedom of Speech depicts a scene of a local town meeting in which Jim Edgerton, the lone dissenter to the town selectmen's announced plans to build a new school, was accorded the floor as a matter of protocol. The old school had burned down. Once he envisioned this scene to depict freedom of speech, Rockwell decided to use his Vermont neighbors as models for a Four Freedoms series. The blue-collar speaker wears a plaid shirt and suede jacket. He has dirty hands and a darker complexion than others in attendance. The other attendees are wearing white shirts, ties and jackets. Although one of the men is wearing a wedding band, the speaker is not. Edgerton's youth and workman-like hands are fashioned with a worn and stained jacket, while the other attendees, appear to be older and more neatly and formally dressed. He is shown standing tall, his mouth open, his shining eyes transfixed, he speaks his mind, untrammeled and unafraid. Edgerton is depicted in a way that resembles Abraham Lincoln. According to Bruce Cole of The Wall Street Journal, the closest figure in the painting is revealing a subject of the meeting as "a discussion of the town's annual report". According to Robert Scholes, the work shows audience members in rapt attention with a sort of admiration of this lone speaker.

Production

Rockwell's final work was the result of four restarts and consumed two months. According to Scholes, the subject resembles a Gary Cooper or Jimmy Stewart character in a Frank Capra film. Each version depicted the blue-collar man in casual attire standing up at a town meeting, but each was from a different angle. Earlier versions were troubled by the distraction of multiple subjects and the improper placement and perspective of the subject for the message to be clear. An Arlington, Vermont Rockwell neighbor, Carl Hess, stood as the model for the shy, brave young workman, and another neighbor, Jim Martin, who appeared in each painting in the series, is in the scene. Rockwell's assistant, Gene Pelham, suggested Hess, who had a gas station in town and whose children went to school with the Rockwell children. According to Pelham, Hess "had a noble head". Others in the work were Hess' father Henry (left ear only), Jim Martin (lower right corner), Harry Brown (right — top of head and eye only), Robert Benedict, Sr. and Rose Hoyt to the left. Rockwell's own eye is also visible along the left edge. Hess was married at the time and Henry Hess was a German immigrant. Pelham was the owner of the suede jacket. Hess posed for Rockwell eight different times for this work and all other models posed for Rockwell individually.

An early draft had Hess surrounded by others sitting squarely around him. Hess felt the depiction had a more natural look, Rockwell objected, "It was too diverse, it went every which way and didn't settle anywhere or say anything." He felt the upward view from the bench level was more dramatic. Rockwell explained to Yates at The Post that he had to start Freedom of Speech from scratch after an early attempt because he had overworked it. Twice he almost completed the work only to feel it was lacking. Eventually, he was able to produce the final version with the speaker as the subject rather than the assembly.

Critical Review

This image was praised for its focus, and the empty bench seat in front of the speaker is perceived as inviting to the viewer. The solid dark background of the blackboard helps the subject to stand out but almost obscures Rockwell's signature. According to Deborah Solomon, the work "imbues the speaker with looming tallness and requires his neighbors to literally look up to him." The speaker represents a blue-collar unattached and sexually available, likely ethnic, threat to social customs who nonetheless is accorded the full respect from the audience. Some question the authenticity of white-collar residents being so attentive to the comments of their blue-collar brethren. The lack of female figures in the picture gives this an Elks club meeting feel rather than an open town meeting.

Laura Claridge said, "The American ideal that the painting is meant to encapsulate shines forth brilliantly for those who have canonized this work as among Rockwell's great pictures. For those who find the piece less successful, however, Rockwell's desire to give concrete form to an ideal produces a strained result. To such critics the people looking up at the speaker have stars in their eyes, their posture conveying celebrity worship, not a room full of respectful dissent."

Cole describes this freedom as an "active and public" subject that Rockwell formulated "his greatest painting forging traditional American illustration into a powerful and enduring work of art." He notes that Rockwell uses "a classic pyramidal composition" to emphasize the central figure, a standing speaker whose appearance is juxtaposed with the rest of the audience that by participating in democracy defends it. Cole describes Rockwell's figure as "the very embodiment of free speech, a living manifestation of that abstract right—an image that transforms principle, paint and, yes, creed, into an indelible image and a brilliant and beloved American icon still capable of inspiring millions world-wide". He notes that the use of a New England town-hall meetings incorporates the "long tradition of democratic public debate" into the work while the blackboard and pew represent church and school, which are "two pillars of American life."

Hibbs said of Speech and Worship "To me they are great human documents in the form of paint and canvas. A great picture, I think is one which moves and inspires millions of people. The Four Freedoms did — do so." Westbrook notes that Rockwell presents "individual dissent" that acts to "protect private conscience from the state." Another writer describes the theme of the work as "civility", a theme of days gone by.

Norman Rockwell's Freedom of Worship

Freedom of Worship

— Norman Rockwell, 1943, oil on canvas

Freedom of Worship (sometiems called Freedom to Worship) is the second of the series. Rockwell considered this painting and Freedom of Speech the most successful of the series. Freedom of Worship was published on the 27th of February, 1943, issue of The Saturday Evening Post alongside an essay by philosopher Will Durant.

The painting shows the profiles of eight heads in a modest space. The various figures represent people of different faiths in a moment of prayer. Particularly, three figures on the bottom row (right to left): a man with his head covered carrying a religious book who is Jewish, an older woman who is Protestant, and a younger woman with a well-lit face holding rosary beads who is Catholic.

Production

The original version of the painting was set in a barbershop with patrons of a variety of religions and races all waiting their turn in the barber's chair. His first workup was a 41-by-33-inch (104 cm × 84 cm) oil on canvas depicting tolerance as "the basis for a democracy's religious diversity". It included a Jew being served by a Protestant barber as a black man and a Roman Catholic priest awaited the barber's services. The problem was painting easily recognizable depictions of different religions and races because there was little agreement on what a person of a certain religion should look like. However, as he attempted to clarify the characters' depictions he found himself resorting to offensive overexaggeration, especially of the non-clerical characters. Making a Jewish man appear stereotypically Semitic, making a white customer preppy and relegating the black man to agrarian workman attire bogged down the work without speaking on behalf of the government as it should. Rockwell's intended theme was religious tolerance, but he felt the original composition did not successfully make this point.

In June 1942, Post editor Ben Hibbs became supportive of Rockwell's Four Freedoms sketches, and gave Rockwell two months to complete the works. By October, the Post was worried about Rockwell's progress on the Four Freedoms and sent their art editor to Arlington to evaluate. At that time Rockwell was working on Freedom of Worship, his second painting in the series. Rockwell spent two months (October and most of November 1942) on this work, that was inspired by the phrase "Each according to the dictates of his own conscience." His Arlington, Vermont, neighbors served as his models: Three months pregnant with her hair upbraided, Rose Hoyt posed as a Catholic with a rosary, even though she was actually Protestant of the Episcopal Church. Other models were a Mrs. Harrington, Rockwell's carpenter Walter Squires, Squire's wife Clara Squires (at the right-hand edge), Winfield Secoy, and Jim Martin (center). His final version relied on other visual clues, including a rosary and a religious book. The work had dark-skinned black worshipers juxtaposed on the edges. This placement did not rock the boat with The Post who had not yet featured blacks prominently on its pages. Rockwell said he made these ethnics palatable by "'furtively' painting the face of the black woman at the top; the man at the bottom, with his fez, was too obviously foreign to offend." The image is commonly enhanced and often darkened in reproduction because it uses a color combination of soft greys, beiges and browns. The paint was applied thinly, which allows the weave of the canvas to contribute to the image.

Rockwell has stated that he feels hands are second only to heads in importance to the expression of a story. He stated with regards to Freedom of Worship, "I depended on the hands alone to convey about half of the message I wish to put over." Rockwell's extensive effort on this work was due to his belief that religion "is an extremely delicate subject. It is so easy to hurt so many people's feelings."

Critical Review

Post editor Ben Hibbs said of Speech and Worship, "To me they are great human documents in the form of paint and canvas. A great picture, I think is one which moves and inspires millions of people. The Four Freedoms did — and do." Walt Disney wrote, "I thought your Four Freedoms were great. I especially loved the Freedom of Worship and the composition and symbolism expressed in it." Rockwell believed that Freedom of Worship and Freedom of Speech were his better results in the series. Laura Claridge has written that the inspirational phrase "Each according to the dictates of his own conscience" is a "platitude that suggests the plurality of Rockwell's own thoughts on religion: its likely source was a phrase included in the Thirteen Articles of Faith by Joseph Smith." In fact, Rockwell repeatedly asked colleagues about possible sources of the quote and was not told about Smith's writing until after the series was published. The expression "according to the dictates of his conscience" (or a similar variation) was used in many United States state constitutions in the eighteenth century.

Critical review of the painting shows that some practitioners of particular faiths are disappointed by the acceptance of all faiths expressed in Freedom of Religion. Claridge feels that

the tight amalgam of faces ... and even the crepey skin on elderly hands, which have become the objects of worship, push the theme over the edge from idealistic tolerance into gooey sentiment, where human differences seem caught up in a magical moment of dispensation from the Light. The restraint demanded by art that deals with heightened emotion is lacking.

Claridge stated that the earlier version was "clean, impressively sparse, in counterpoise to a dense narrative content. Beautifully painted even at the preliminary oil sketch stage." Murray and McCabe note that the work is a divergence from the "storytelling style" that Rockwell is known for.

Deborah Solomon considers the painting the least satisfactory of the series as she feels it is congested and somewhat "didactic". Maureen Hart Hennessey, chief curator of the Norman Rockwell Museum, and curator Anne Knutson consider the scale of the picture that only shows heads and hands in prayer as disruptive. Bruce Cole of The Wall Street Journal noted that Rockwell's "depiction of spectral close-up faces and hands raised in prayer is bland, without any real message about religious freedom—again, no wallop. This is because faith, like the absence of fear and the absence of want, is essentially private, something personal, intangible and unpicturable."

Norman Rockwell's Freedom from Want

Freedom from Want

— Norman Rockwell, 1943, oil on canvas

Freedom from Want, also known as The Thanksgiving Picture or I'll Be Home for Christmas, is the third series. It was published in the March 6, 1943 issue of The Saturday Evening Post. All of the people in the picture were friends and family of Rockwell in Arlington, Vermont, who were photographed individually and painted into the scene. The work depicts a group of people gathered around a dinner table for a holiday meal. Having been partially created on Thanksgiving Day to depict the celebration, it has become an iconic representation of the Thanksgiving holiday and family holiday gatherings in general. The Post published Freedom from Want with a corresponding essay by Carlos Bulosan as part of the Four Freedoms series. Despite many who endured sociopolitical hardships abroad, Bulosan's essay spoke on behalf of those enduring the socioeconomic hardships domestically, and it thrust him into prominence.

The painting shows an aproned matriarch presenting a roasted turkey to a family of several generations, in Rockwell's idealistic presentation of family values. The patriarch looks on with fondness and approval from the head of the table, which is the central element of the painting. Its creased tablecloth shows that this is a special occasion for "sharing what we have with those we love", according to Lennie Bennett. The table has a bowl of fruit, celery, pickles, and what appears to be cranberry sauce. There is a covered silver serving dish that would traditionally hold potatoes, according to Richard Halpern, but Bennett describes this as a covered casserole dish. The servings are less prominent than the presentation of white linen, white plates and water-filled glasses. The people in the painting are not yet eating, and the painting contrasts the empty plates and vacant space in their midst with images of overabundance.

Production

Rockwell was concerned that Freedom from Want did not match Bulosan's text. In mid-November of 1942, Hibbs wrote Rockwell pleading that he not scrap his third work to start over. Hibbs alleviated Rockwell's thematic concern; he explained that the illustrations only needed to address the same topic rather than be in unison. Hibbs pressured Rockwell into completing his work by warning him that the magazine was on the verge of being compelled by the government to place restrictions on four-color printing, so Rockwell had better get the work published before relegation to halftone printing.

As in the previous paintings, Rockwell used his Arlington, Virginia neighbors as models for the portraits. In Freedom from Want, he used his living room for the setting and relied on neighbors for advice, critical commentary, and their service as his models. For Freedom from Want, Rockwell photographed his cook as she presented the turkey on Thanksgiving Day 1942. He said that he painted the turkey on that day and that, unlike Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Worship, this painting was not difficult to execute. Rockwell's wife Mary is in this painting, and the family cook, Mrs. Thaddeus Wheaton, is serving the turkey, which the Rockwell family ate that day. The nine adults and two children depicted were photographed in Rockwell's studio and painted into the scene later. The models are (clockwise from Wheaton) Lester Brush, Florence Lindsey, Rockwell's mother Nancy, Jim Martin (who appeared in all four paintings in the series), Mr. Wheaton, Mary Rockwell, Charles Lindsey, and the Hoisington children. Shirley Hoisington, the girl at the end of the table, was six at the time.

Critical Review

Freedom from Want is considered one of Rockwell's finest works. Of the four paintings in the Four Freedoms, it is the one most often seen in art books with critical review and commentary. Although all were intended to promote patriotism in a time of war, Freedom from Want became a symbol of "family togetherness, peace, and plenty", according to Linda Rosenkrantz, who compares it to "a 'Hallmark' Christmas". Embodying nostalgia for an enduring American theme of holiday celebration, the painting is not exclusively associated with Thanksgiving, and is sometimes known as I'll Be Home for Christmas. The abundance and unity it shows were the idyllic hope of a post-war world, and the image has been reproduced in various formats.

According to author Amy Dempsey, during the Cold War, Rockwell's images affirmed traditional American values, depicting Americans as prosperous and free. Rockwell's work came to be categorized within art movements and styles such as Regionalism and American scene painting. Rockwell's work sometimes displays an idealized vision of America's rural and agricultural past. Rockwell summed up his own idealism: "I paint life as I would like it to be."

Despite Rockwell's general optimism, he had misgivings about having depicted such a large turkey when much of Europe was "starving, overrun [and] displaced" as World War II raged. Rockwell noted that this painting was not popular in Europe: "The Europeans sort of resented it because it wasn't freedom from want, it was overabundance, the table was so loaded down with food." Outside the United States, this overabundance was the common perception. However, Richard Halpern says the painting not only displays overabundance of food, but also of "family, conviviality, and security", and opines that "overabundance rather than mere sufficiency is the true answer to want." He parallels the emotional nourishment provided by the image to that of the food nourishment that it depicts, remarking that the picture is noticeably inviting. However, by depicting the table with nothing but empty plates and white dishes on white linen, Rockwell may have been invoking the Puritan origins of the Thanksgiving holiday.

To art critic Robert Hughes, the painting represents the theme of family continuity, virtue, homeliness, and abundance without extravagance in a Puritan tone, as confirmed by the modest beverage choice of water. Historian Lizabeth Cohen says that by depicting this freedom as a celebration in the private family home rather than a worker with a job or a government protecting the hungry and homeless, Rockwell suggests that ensuring this freedom was not as much a government responsibility as something born from participation in the mass consumer economy.

One of the notable and artistically challenging elements of the image is Rockwell's use of white-on-white: white plates sitting on a white tablecloth. Art critic Deborah Solomon describes this as "one of the most ambitious plays of white-against-white since Whistler's Symphony in White, No. 1". Solomon further describes the work as "a new level of descriptive realism. Yet, the painting doesn't feel congested or fussy; it is open and airy in the center. Extensive passages of white paint nicely frame the individual faces."

Jim Martin, positioned in the lower right, gives a coy and perhaps mischievous glance back at the viewer. He is a microcosm of the entire scene in which no one appears to be giving thanks in a traditional manner of a Thanksgiving dinner. Solomon finds it a departure from previous depictions of Thanksgiving in that the participants do not lower their heads or raise their hands in the traditional poses of prayer. She sees it as an example of treating American traditions in both sanctified and casual ways. Theologian David Brown sees gratitude as implicit in the painting, while Kenneth Bendiner writes that Rockwell was mindful of the Last Supper and that the painting's perspective echoes its rendition by Tintoretto.

Norman Rockwell's Freedom from Fear

Freedom from Fear

— Norman Rockwell, 1943, oil on canvas

Freedom from Fear is the last of The Four Freedoms series. It was published in the March 13, 1943 issue of the Saturday Evening Post with a matching essay by Stephen Vincent Benét.

The painting shows children resting safely in their beds, oblivious to the perils of this world, as their parents look on. Their mother tucks them in while their father holds a newspaper describing the horrors of the ongoing conflict. However, his attention is fully on his children and not on the alarming headlines. According to another view, the children are already asleep, and their parents are checking on them in their shared narrow bed before they themselves turn in for the night. The father appears as the "classic Rockwell onlooker" who serves as a viewer within the painting. Since he is holding his glasses, we assume that he has finished reading the Bennington Banner in his hand. The newspaper's headline reads "Bombings Ki ... Horror Hit", referencing the Blitz. In the background is a lit hallway and a stairway leading to the first floor.

According to Rockwell, the theme "was based on a rather smug idea." It was painted during the Blitz, and "it was supposed to say, 'Thank God we can put our children to bed with a feeling of security, knowing they will not be killed in the night.'"

Production

This painting is the only one of the Four Freedoms which had been created prior to the commissioning of the series. It had originally been created to depict the Battle of Britain, the air defence by the UK Air Force against the German Luffwaffe durring the air raids on London and other British cities, but it went unpublished by The Saturday Evening Post until The Four Freedoms Series.

The
Freedoms in
Context

America
Before WWI

In the 1930s, many Americans, arguing that the involvement in World War I had been a mistake, were adamantly against continued intervention in European affairs. With the Neutrality Acts established after 1935, U.S. law banned the sale of armaments to countries that were at war and placed restrictions on travel with belligerent vessels.

When World War II began in September 1939, the neutrality laws were still in effect, and ensured that no substantial support could be given to Britain and France. With the revision of the Neutrality Act in 1939, Roosevelt adopted a "methods-short-of-war policy" whereby supplies and armaments could be given to European Allies, provided no declaration of war could be made and no troops committed.

By December 1940, Europe was largely at the mercy of Adolf Hitler and Germany's Nazi regime. With Germany's defeat of France in June 1940, Britain and its overseas Empire stood alone against the military alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Winston Churchill, as Prime Minister of Britain, called for Roosevelt and the United States to supply them with armaments in order to continue with the war effort.

The 1939 New York World's Fair had celebrated Four Freedoms - religion, speech, press and assembly - and commissioned Leo Friedlander to create sculptures representing them. Mayor of New York City Fiorello La Guardia described the resulting statues as the "heart of the fair". Later Roosevelt would declare his own "Four Essential Freedoms" and call on Walter Russell to create a Four Freedoms Monument that was eventually dedicated at Madison Square Garden in New York City.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt's 1941 State of the Union

Throughout his political career Roosevelt championed the cause of human rights. In his annual State of the Union address to Congress of January 6, 1941, which was delivered at a time when Nazi Germany occupied much of Western Europe, he asked the American citizens to support war efforts in various ways. He stated his vision of a better future, founded upon four freedoms: "In the future days which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms," some traditional and some new ones: freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.

Roosevelt's January 6 State of the Union address became known as his "Four Freedoms Speech", due to its conclusion that described the President's vision of a worldwide extension of the American ideals of individual liberties summarized by these four freedoms. To put it another way, FDR's speech was known for "identifying the objectives of the war and revealing his hopeful view of the postwar world". The speech helped to awaken Congress and the nation to the dire war calling, articulate ideological aims of the necessary armed conflict and appeal to the universal American belief of freedom. Domestically, the Four Freedoms were not something that Roosevelt was able to achieve through simple legislation, although they provided a theme for American military participation in the war. Of the Four Freedoms, the only two described in the United States Constitution were freedom of speech and freedom of worship.

Artistic Response

In 1942, the White House invited the art world to lend a hand in raising public awareness, and the nation’s artists, writers, actors, designers, composers, and musicians vigorously took up the challenge of promoting the war effort and advancing the Four Freedoms.

By encouraging artists across the country to offer interpretations through art, music, and writing, the president hoped that the Four Freedoms would finally resonate in a nation distracted by the stresses of wartime. America’s artists vigorously took up the challenge. A flood of Four Freedoms tributes resulted—in the form of sculptures, paintings, drawings, quilts, poems, plays, exhibitions, and even a full-length symphony. A series of Four Freedoms stamps was announced, and artists submitted their creative proposals for those designs as well. Many had been engaged in the New Deal through the Works Progress Administration’s Federal One projects for Art, Theater, Music, and Writers. Drawing on those experiences, they now brought their creative energies to a new cause.

Despite the quality and volume of the works produced, most failed to gain a widespread following. Like the president’s words, the impact of the Four Freedoms remained intangible for most observers. Though the art world had valiantly championed the cause of the Four Freedoms, true engagement with the president’s idealistic notions was still elusive.

Aftermath

When the series was published, The Saturday Evening Post received millions of reprint requests. They produced 25,000 sets, including both the essays and full-color reproductions of the paintings, sold at cost for $0.25 ($3.54 in 2017 dollars). According to Rockwell, the OWI got involved and produced 2.5 million sets of Four Freedoms posters only after the public demanded reprints. By the end of the war, 4 million posters had been printed. Both the Freedom from Fear and Freedom from Want posters had the leading caption "ours. . .to fight for" and the Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Worship had the leading caption "Buy War Bonds" and the word "Save" before the respective freedom. A 1946 lithograph version of the 1943 paintings exists showing all four paintings under the heading "ours. . .to fight for".

The Four Freedoms were issued as posters by the United States Government Printing Office and as postage stamps by the United States Postal Service. They were used as commemorative covers for war bonds and postage stamps offered during the War Bond show. The stamps are not to be confused with the February 12, 1943 one-cent Four Freedoms Postage Stamp Issue by another artist. The Rockwell versions were issued in a set of four fifty-cent stamps in 1994, the 100th anniversary of Rockwell's birth. Freedom from Want was included as the cover image of the 1946 book Norman Rockwell, Illustrator that was written when Rockwell was "at the height of his fame as America's most popular illustrator". By 1972, this 1946 publication was in its seventh printing. Although the paintings were originally intimately connected to Roosevelt and the American cause in World War II, the paintings have now developed an independent iconic identity in textbooks and on ties as well as in the cultural and social fabric. By the end of the 20th century, 25 million people bought Rockwell's Four Freedoms prints.

Rockwell noted that the series took an emotional toll on him, saying that the works were "serious paintings which sucked the energy right out of me like dredges, leaving me dazed and thoroughly weary". His subsequent assignment was to produce the 1943 April Fools' Day cover for The Post, which was much more relaxing.

Rockwell was solicited for a variety of works following the publication of the Four Freedoms. Massachusetts Representative Edith Nourse Rogers put forth a congressional resolution to declare a fifth freedom: "Freedom of Private Enterprise". Bronx Inter-Racial Conference chairman Roderick Stephens, requested Rockwell's services to highlight the need for improved interracial relations in a series that would complement the original Four Freedoms. Rockwell and Stephens communicated, and, over the course of his career, Rockwell did contemplate and depict race relations in several works, but not as a series.

The Evolution

What do the Freedoms Mean Today?

Do the Four Freedoms still have relevance today, in a post-World War II America? How have things changed, how have they stayed the same?

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